Sunday, September 22, 2013



The education system which was evolved first in ancient India is known

as the Vedic system of education. In other words, the ancient systems of

education were based on the Vedas and therefore it was given the name

of Vedic Educational System. Ancient education emerged from the Vedas.

They are supposed to be the source of Indian philosophy of life. Vedas

means ‘to know’.

Vedas occupy a very important place in the Indian life. The basis of Indian

culture lies in the Vedas which are four in number – Rigveda, Samveda,

Yajurveda, and Atharavaveda.

Monday, September 2, 2013


 According to Kothari commission, a teacher who unlike an ordinary worker, acts as a master, crafts man, an artist, a strategist and a powerful motivator. The environs of a classroom are enlivened by the inspiring, dynamic, enthusiastic, encouraging, skillful and dedicated teacher. It is he who shapes the destiny of students and that of the future citizens who eventually shape the destiny of the country. Such a teacher only can successfully in culture among children values that strengthen the ideals of social justice, equity, secularism and pluralism.

By its very definition, a professional, including a teacher is a lifelong learner because of his association with scientific knowledge which keeps growing and so opportunities have to be afforded to ensure that he keeps learning and developing throughout his professional life. This is precisely the responsibility of teacher education system which is more than a mere combination of two of its major components i.e. pre-service teacher preparation and in-service education.
Professional preparation and professional development of teachers is a continuous process. It begins with the selection of an aspirant teacher and includes his initial preparation induction into the profession and his continuous development throughout his teaching carrier. The formulation of policy and design of teacher preparation and continuing professional development should optimally take into account the whole spectrum of teacher learning. 
                  Pre-service education of teacher means, education of teachers before they enter into service as teacher. During this period of teacher education programmes, teaching practice goes side by side, while they are getting knowledge about theory papers. 

Thursday, July 4, 2013


Vocational Education and Training

At present, Vocational Education is provided only at
the +2 stage and, even here, it is restricted to a distinct
stream that is parallel to the academic stream. In
contrast to the NPE 1986 goal of covering 25 per cent
of the +2 enrolment in the vocational stream by the
year 2000, less than 5 per cent of students choose this
option at present. The programme has been debilitated
by a range of conceptual, managerial and resource
constraints for more than 25 years. Apart from being
viewed as an inferior stream, it suffers from poor
infrastructure, obsolete equipment, untrained or underqualified
teachers (often on a part-time basis), outdated
and inflexible courses, lac k of vertical or later al mobility,
absence of linkage with the ‘world of work’, lack of a
credible evaluation, accreditation and apprenticeship
system, and, finally, low employability (Report of the
Working Group for the Revision of the Centrally
Sponsored Scheme of Vocationalisation of Secondary
Education, NCERT, 1998)

Wednesday, July 3, 2013


In-Service Education and Training of

In-service education can play a significant role in the
professional growth of teachers and function as an
agent for change in school-related practices. It helps
teachers gain confidence by engaging with their
practices and reaffirming their experiences. It provides
opportunities to engage with other teachers
professionally and to update knowledge. The Education
Commission (1964–66) recommended that in-service
education for teachers should be organised by
universities and teacher organisations to enable every
teacher to receive two or three months of in-service
education once in five years; that such programmes
should be based on research inputs; that training
institutions should work on a 12-month basis and
organise programmes like refresher courses, seminars,
workshops and summer institutes. The Report of the
National Commission on Teachers (1983–85) mooted
the idea of Teachers' Centres that could serve as meeting
places, where talent could be pooled and teaching
experiences shared. It suggested that teachers could go
to centres of learning on study leave. The NPE (1986)
linked in-service and pre-service teacher education on
a continuum;

Tuesday, July 2, 2013



School libraries have been a subject of policy
recommendations for a long time, but a functioning
library in the school continues to be a rarity. It is
important that future planning treats the library as an
essential component of the school at all levels. Both
teachers and children need to be motivated and trained
to use the library as a resource for learning, pleasure,
and concentration. The school library should be
conceptualised as an intellectual space where teachers,



v Introduction
v Salient Features Of Vedic Education In Ancient India
v Forms Of Educational Institutions In Vedic Period
v Role Of Teacher And Students
v Conclusion

 The education system which was evolved first in ancient India is known as the Vedic system of education. In other words, the ancient system of education were based on the Vedas and therefore it was given the name of Vedic Educational System. Vedas occupy a very important place in the Indian life. The basis of Indian culture lies in the Vedas which are four in number – Rigveda, Samveda, Yajurveda, and Atharavaveda.  Some scholars have sub divided Vedic Educational period into Rig
Veda period, Brahmani period, Upanishada period, Sutra (Hymn) period, Smriti period etc but all these period, due to predominance of the Vedas, there was no change in the aims and ideals of educations. That is why, the education of these periods, is studied under Vedic period.
“Swadesh Pujyate Raja, Vidwan Sarvatra Pujyate”
 This verse widely quoted in India illustrates the significance of education in India. The education system of Vedic period has unique characteristics and qualities which were not found in the ancient education system of any other country of the world.
 According to Dr. F. E. Key, “To achieve their aim not only did Brahmans develop a system of education which, survived even in the events of the crumbling of empires and the changes of society, but they, also through all those thousands of years, kept a glow of torch of higher learning.”
 In the words of Dr. P. N. Prabhu, “Education in ancient India was free from any external control like that of the state and government or any party politics. It was the kings duties to see that learned Pundits, pursued their studies and performed their duty of imparting knowledge without interference from any source what so ever.”
The education system that prevailed during the Vedic times had some unique characteristics. Education was confined to the upper castes, and to those who were BRAHMACHARIS. In Indian tradition, a person’s life cycle is divided into four stages of which BRAHMACHARI is the second phase. This is the time set aside for learning and acquiring skills. During Vedic period, most of the upper castes, which were either Brahmins or Kshatriyas had their education in a unique system called GURUKULAM. Students had their education by living with their preceptors in forests far removed from cities, towns or villages. The life of students who were called SHISYAS was very rigorous and demanding. Those who failed to live up to these high standards would simply fall by the wayside. There were legendary acharyas like Sanandeepani and Dronacharya who taught epic heroes like Krishna and Arjuna martial skills, but what makes the Vedic period unique is the existence of sages like Gautama and Jaimini who were founder of different schools of Indian philosophy like Nyaya and Purva Mimamsa. This was a period of intense intellectual activity and speculation, which we hardly find even now. While Nyaya and Vaisheshika were theistic philosophies, Sankhya was atheistic.

Monday, July 1, 2013


Educational Technology

The significance of Educational Technology (ET) as a
site for curriculum planning has been widely recognised,
but detailed guidelines and strategies for its educationally
optimum use have not yet been worked out. Generally,
technology has been used as a medium to disseminate
information, and as a way of addressing the scarcity
of good teachers—usuallythe consequence of poor
recruitment policies.ET, which is used toredress the problem
of quality of teaching, can only exacerbate the disillusionment
of teachers withteaching. If ET is to become a means of enhancing
curricular reform, it must treat the majority of teachers
and children not merely as consumers but also as active
producers. There must be widespread consultation
regarding use during development and implementation.
ET facilities need to be used at all levels of schools —
cluster and block resource centres, district, state and
national level institutions — in order to provide handson
experience in using ET. Such experiences provided
to children, teachers and teacher educators, could
include something as simple as the audio-recording of
an interview with a village elder, to making a video
film or a video game. Providing children more direct
access to multimedia equipment and Information

Sunday, June 30, 2013


Texts and Books

Popular perception treats the textbook as the prime
site for curriculum designing. Though curriculum
planning is a much wider process, curriculum reform
seldom goes beyond changing the textbook. Improved
textbooks that are carefully written and designed,
professionally edited and tested, offering not merely
factual information but also interactive spaces for
children are important. But curricular reform can go
much farther if textbooks are accompanied by several
other kinds of materials. Subject dictionaries, for
instance, can relieve the main textbook from becoming
encyclopaedic, burdened by carrying definitions of
technical terms, and instead allow the teacher to focus
on understanding concepts. The triangular relationship
between high-speed classroom teaching, heavy
homework and private tuition, which is a major source
of stress, can be weakened if textbook writers focus
on elaboration of concepts, activities, spaces for
wondering about problems, exercises encouraging
reflective thinking and small-group work, leaving the
definition of technical terms to a subject dictionary.

Saturday, June 29, 2013



It is widely acknowledged that health is influenced by
biological, social, economic, cultural and political forces.
Access to basic needs like food, safe drinking water
supply, housing, sanitation and health services influences
the health status of a population, and these are reflected
through mortality and nutritional indicator s. Health is a
critical input for the overall development of the child,
and it influences enrolment, retention and school
completion rates significantly. This curriculum area
adopts a holistic definition of health within which
physical education and yoga contribute to the physical,
social, emotional and mental development of a child.
Undernourishment and communicable diseases are
the major health problems faced by the majority of
children in India, from the pre-primary to the higher
secondary school stages. Therefore, the need to address
this aspect at all levels of schooling, with special attention
to vulnerable social groups and girl children. It is
proposed that the midday meal programme and medical
check-ups be made a part of the curriculum and
education about health be provided that address the agespecific
concerns at different stages of development.

Friday, June 28, 2013



Work, understood simply, is an activity directed toward
making or doing something. It also means making
one’s work or capabilities, or both, available for
someone else’s purposes for monetary or other forms
of return. A number of these activities are related to
producing food, articles of daily use, looking after the
physical and mental well-being of people, and other
activities related to the administration and organisation
of society. In any society, in addition to these, two basic
dimensions (producing goods and establishing smooth
functioning), various other activities also contribute to
human well-being, and in that sense are considered
forms of work.

Understood in this sense, work implies a
commitment to other members of the society and/or
community as one is contributing one’s work and
capabilities for fulfilling their needs. Second, it implies
that one’s contribution made through work will be
submitted to public standards of performance and
hence will be valued and judged by others. Third, work
implies contributing to the functioning of social life as
it either produces something that makes life possible
or helps in the functioning of society in general. Finally,
work enriches human life as it opens up new dimensions
of appreciation and enjoyment.

Thursday, June 27, 2013


Critical Pedagogy

Teacher and student engagement is critical in the
classroom because it has the power to define whose
knowledge will become a part of school-related
knowledge and whose voices will shape it. Students
are not just young people for whom adults should
devise solutions. They are critical observers of their
own conditions and needs, and should be participants
in discussions and problem solving related to their
education and future opportunities. Hence children need
to be aware that their experiences and perceptions are
important and should be encouraged to develop the
mental skills needed to think and reason independently
and have the courage to dissent. What children learn
out of school — their capacities, learning abilities, and
knowledge base — and bring to school is important
to further enhance the learning process. This is all the
more critical for children from underprivileged
backgrounds, especially girls, as the worlds they inhabit
and their realities are under represented in school

Tuesday, June 25, 2013


Approaches to Planning

Our educational practice is still based on limited ‘lesson
plans’ aimed at achieving measurable ‘behaviours’;
according to this view, the child is akin to a creature
that can be trained, or a computer that can be
programmed. Hence, there is too much focus on
‘outcomes’, and presenting knowledge divided into bits
of information to be memorised directly from the text
or through activities after ‘motivating’ children, and
finally on evaluating to see if children remember what
they have learnt. Instead, we need to view the child as
‘constructing knowledge’ all the time. This is true not
only of ‘cognitive subjects’ such as mathematics and
science, language and social science, but equally of
values, skills and attitudes.


Teaching for Construction of Knowledge

In the constructivist perspective, learning is a process
of the construction of knowledge. Learners actively
construct their own knowledge by connecting new ideas
to existing ideas on the basis of materials/activities
presented to them (experience). For example, using a
text or a set of pictures/visuals on a transport system
coupled with discussions will allow young learners to
be facilitated to construct the idea of a transport system.

Initial construction (mental representation) may be
based on the idea of the road transport system, and a
child from a remote rural setting may form the idea
centred around the bullock cart. Learners construct
mental representations (images) of external reality
(transport system) through a given set of acti vities
(experiences). The structuring and restructuring of
ideas are essential features as the learners progress in
learning. For instance, the initial idea of a transport
system built around road transport will be reconstructed
to accommodate other types of transport
systems—sea and air—using appropriate activities.



The aims of education serve as broad guidelines to
align educational processes to chosen ideals and
accepted principles. The aims of education
simultaneously reflect the current needs and aspirations
of a society as well as its lasting values, and the
immediate concerns of a community as well as broadhuman ideals. At any given time and place they can be
called the contemporary and contextual articulations
of broad and lasting human aspirations and values.
Educational aims turn the different activities
undertaken in schools and other educational institutions
into a creative pattern and give them the distinctive
character of being ‘educational’. An educational aim
helps the teacher connect her present classroom activity
to a cherished future outcome without making it
instrumental, and therefore give it direction without
divorcing it from current concerns. Thus, an aim is a
foreseen end: it is not an idle view of a mere spectator;
rather, it influences the steps taken to reach the end. An
aim must provide foresight. It can do this in three ways:
First, it involves careful observation of the given
conditions to see what means are available for reaching
the end, and to discover the hindrances in the way.

Saturday, June 1, 2013


The word education is derived from the Latin word Educatum which means the act of teaching or training. There is another word in Latin that is Educare which means to bring up or to raise. The word Educare means to lead forth or to come out. All these meanings indicate that education seeks to nourish the good qualities in man and draw out the best in man.Education helps to develop the inner capacities of man.

  By educating an individual we attempt to give him some desirable knowledge, understanding, skills, interests, attitude and critical thinking. That is he acquires knowledge of history, geography, arithmetic, languages and other sciences. By education people develops some understandings about the deeper things in life, complex human relations and cause and effect of relationships etc. The person gets some skillsinwriting, speaking, calculating, drawing, operating some equipments etc.
     Education is necessary for the survival of the society. It is a purposeful activity. The aims of education will vary from time to time and from people to people. Educational aims can be immediate and ultimate. Immediate aims are those which fulfill the immediate needs. The ultimate aim of education is the perfect happiness.
Education has been classified into three types,
1. Formal education
2. Informal education
3. Non-formal education  

Wednesday, February 20, 2013


The core mission of higher education is to educate, train, undertake, research and provide service to the community. The Higher Education in India is the Second largest system in the world. It has witnessed many fold increase in its institutional capacity since independence- from 1950 to 2012, the number of universities from 20 to about 431, colleges from 500 to 20,677 and teachers from 15, to 5.05 Lakhs with student enrollment from 1.00 lakh to over 116.12 Lakhs. Then to protect the quality of the higher education institutions, the National Policy Mission propose the Accreditation unit.  Based on this, University Grants Commission (UGC), under section 12 CCC of the UGC Act (Act 3 of 1956), established the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) as an Autonomous Institution on 16 September 1994 with Registered Office at Bangalore.
The National Assessment and Accreditation Council is in its 18th year of operation now. Seventeen years may not mean a long time in the annals of Indian higher education, which may data back to the ancient period of ‘Nalanda’ and ‘Takshashila’, but it can certainly be a sufficiently long period for a National Quality Assurance Agency to take stock of its policies and practices. The decade-old history of NAAC is a story of many triumphs and tribulations. Addressing the quality concerns of world’s second largest higher education system has meant, adding several dimensions to the experiences of quality assurance initiatives of NAAC. Quality assurance models, as with higher education systems themselves, are designed to fulfill long- term collective needs. The quality assurance agencies are obliged to face enduring questions such as defining and maintaining standards of quality and equally important need to keep their methodologies up- to –date and responsive to shifting societal needs. The important actions and methodologies of NAAC are explained here.

Saturday, February 9, 2013


How does an electric bulb light up? Why does it take such a short time cook “dal” in a pressure cooker? What is the area of your room? The answers to these and to other similar questions of everyday life cannot be given if the person is ignorant and not educated even in such simple things which one comes across every day. It is learning of information skills, and ideas that make a person knowledgeable and thus a useful member of the society. Education is change in behavior and improvement in abilities, when ignorance is changed into knowledge and awareness. The unskilled becomes skilled and his values, appreciations and outlook on life also change in a more positive way. Education meaning change in behavior and attitudes need not necessarily be through formal schooling; it can also be imparted in a non-formal setting. When education is imparted in a free atmosphere, without the rigidity of rules and regulations associated with school or college education it is termed as non formal education (NFE). Non Formal education imparts depth and meaning to that work of the recipient which he is already doing, or wants to do and thereby can make him more efficient and quite likely much more productive also. The non-formal approach to education can be described as the absence of a formal and captive way of teaching and evaluating. Non-formal education emphasizes learning. In the non-formal education; it is not necessary to put work into education because, most of the persons coming for non-formal education would already be working. Therefore; non-formal education is built around the work of the people who take up non-formal education. It enables the learner to increase his productivity in terms of output and also to improve the quality of the work in which he/she is already engaged. The large proportion of India’s population is poor; living in rural as well as urban areas. They live in pathetic conditions. Education in any form needs to be provided to them to improve their quality of life and to help them to participate productively in the national development. The formal education system; because of its rigid chronologically graded structure; excludes the poor from its advantages. The non-formal education, which is flexible and relevant to the lives of illiterates and the poor, needs to be encouraged. Formally educated persons can also continue their education for either self-development or higher professional advancement in a non-formal way.
Though, the basic concept of non-formal education is simple, educationalists responsible for its operation has developed academic objectives for this form of education also. The academicians have introduced such objectives not only to explain the concept of non-formal education, but also as a reminder of the dissimilarities in formal and non-formal education. Some of the academic objectives of the NFE are described below;
·                     To educate the dropouts from formal education
·                     To raise the extent of functional literacy
·                     To prepare individual for self-employment
·                     To retain adults for the changing requirements of jobs and family life.
·                     To complement formal education in a country of largely uneducated people
·                     To provide life-long education.