Sunday, September 10, 2017


One of the most important schools of philosophy of education is pragmatism. Pragmatism stands between idealism and materialism a sort of compromise. Its origin can be traced from the Sophists philosophers of ancient Greece who held that man is the measure of all things.
The term pragmatism derives its origin from a Greek word meaning to do, to make, to accomplish. So the use of words likes ‘action’ or ‘practice’ or ‘activity’. Action gets priority over thought. Experience is   at the centre of the universe. Everyone is tested on the touch-stone of experience. Beliefs and ideas are true if they are workable and profitable otherwise false. Will Durant sums up pragmatism as the doctrine that truth is the practical efficiency of an idea. It follows there from that pragmatism is not a philosophy but a method–the method of experimentation. As a basis for school practice pragmatism opposes pre-determined and pre-ordained objectives and curriculums. The past of the pragmatist is dead.
     Values are instrumental only. There are no final or fixed values. They are evolved and are not true for all times and for all situations. According to an undeviating standard of worth, pragmatism tends to be individualistic, selfish; has no values; has no ethics and is thus superficial.

Sunday, September 22, 2013



The education system which was evolved first in ancient India is known

as the Vedic system of education. In other words, the ancient systems of

education were based on the Vedas and therefore it was given the name

of Vedic Educational System. Ancient education emerged from the Vedas.

They are supposed to be the source of Indian philosophy of life. Vedas

means ‘to know’.

Vedas occupy a very important place in the Indian life. The basis of Indian

culture lies in the Vedas which are four in number – Rigveda, Samveda,

Yajurveda, and Atharavaveda.

Monday, September 2, 2013


 According to Kothari commission, a teacher who unlike an ordinary worker, acts as a master, crafts man, an artist, a strategist and a powerful motivator. The environs of a classroom are enlivened by the inspiring, dynamic, enthusiastic, encouraging, skillful and dedicated teacher. It is he who shapes the destiny of students and that of the future citizens who eventually shape the destiny of the country. Such a teacher only can successfully in culture among children values that strengthen the ideals of social justice, equity, secularism and pluralism.

By its very definition, a professional, including a teacher is a lifelong learner because of his association with scientific knowledge which keeps growing and so opportunities have to be afforded to ensure that he keeps learning and developing throughout his professional life. This is precisely the responsibility of teacher education system which is more than a mere combination of two of its major components i.e. pre-service teacher preparation and in-service education.
Professional preparation and professional development of teachers is a continuous process. It begins with the selection of an aspirant teacher and includes his initial preparation induction into the profession and his continuous development throughout his teaching carrier. The formulation of policy and design of teacher preparation and continuing professional development should optimally take into account the whole spectrum of teacher learning. 
                  Pre-service education of teacher means, education of teachers before they enter into service as teacher. During this period of teacher education programmes, teaching practice goes side by side, while they are getting knowledge about theory papers. 

Thursday, July 4, 2013


Vocational Education and Training

At present, Vocational Education is provided only at
the +2 stage and, even here, it is restricted to a distinct
stream that is parallel to the academic stream. In
contrast to the NPE 1986 goal of covering 25 per cent
of the +2 enrolment in the vocational stream by the
year 2000, less than 5 per cent of students choose this
option at present. The programme has been debilitated
by a range of conceptual, managerial and resource
constraints for more than 25 years. Apart from being
viewed as an inferior stream, it suffers from poor
infrastructure, obsolete equipment, untrained or underqualified
teachers (often on a part-time basis), outdated
and inflexible courses, lac k of vertical or later al mobility,
absence of linkage with the ‘world of work’, lack of a
credible evaluation, accreditation and apprenticeship
system, and, finally, low employability (Report of the
Working Group for the Revision of the Centrally
Sponsored Scheme of Vocationalisation of Secondary
Education, NCERT, 1998)

Wednesday, July 3, 2013


In-Service Education and Training of

In-service education can play a significant role in the
professional growth of teachers and function as an
agent for change in school-related practices. It helps
teachers gain confidence by engaging with their
practices and reaffirming their experiences. It provides
opportunities to engage with other teachers
professionally and to update knowledge. The Education
Commission (1964–66) recommended that in-service
education for teachers should be organised by
universities and teacher organisations to enable every
teacher to receive two or three months of in-service
education once in five years; that such programmes
should be based on research inputs; that training
institutions should work on a 12-month basis and
organise programmes like refresher courses, seminars,
workshops and summer institutes. The Report of the
National Commission on Teachers (1983–85) mooted
the idea of Teachers' Centres that could serve as meeting
places, where talent could be pooled and teaching
experiences shared. It suggested that teachers could go
to centres of learning on study leave. The NPE (1986)
linked in-service and pre-service teacher education on
a continuum;

Tuesday, July 2, 2013



School libraries have been a subject of policy
recommendations for a long time, but a functioning
library in the school continues to be a rarity. It is
important that future planning treats the library as an
essential component of the school at all levels. Both
teachers and children need to be motivated and trained
to use the library as a resource for learning, pleasure,
and concentration. The school library should be
conceptualised as an intellectual space where teachers,



v Introduction
v Salient Features Of Vedic Education In Ancient India
v Forms Of Educational Institutions In Vedic Period
v Role Of Teacher And Students
v Conclusion

 The education system which was evolved first in ancient India is known as the Vedic system of education. In other words, the ancient system of education were based on the Vedas and therefore it was given the name of Vedic Educational System. Vedas occupy a very important place in the Indian life. The basis of Indian culture lies in the Vedas which are four in number – Rigveda, Samveda, Yajurveda, and Atharavaveda.  Some scholars have sub divided Vedic Educational period into Rig
Veda period, Brahmani period, Upanishada period, Sutra (Hymn) period, Smriti period etc but all these period, due to predominance of the Vedas, there was no change in the aims and ideals of educations. That is why, the education of these periods, is studied under Vedic period.
“Swadesh Pujyate Raja, Vidwan Sarvatra Pujyate”
 This verse widely quoted in India illustrates the significance of education in India. The education system of Vedic period has unique characteristics and qualities which were not found in the ancient education system of any other country of the world.
 According to Dr. F. E. Key, “To achieve their aim not only did Brahmans develop a system of education which, survived even in the events of the crumbling of empires and the changes of society, but they, also through all those thousands of years, kept a glow of torch of higher learning.”
 In the words of Dr. P. N. Prabhu, “Education in ancient India was free from any external control like that of the state and government or any party politics. It was the kings duties to see that learned Pundits, pursued their studies and performed their duty of imparting knowledge without interference from any source what so ever.”
The education system that prevailed during the Vedic times had some unique characteristics. Education was confined to the upper castes, and to those who were BRAHMACHARIS. In Indian tradition, a person’s life cycle is divided into four stages of which BRAHMACHARI is the second phase. This is the time set aside for learning and acquiring skills. During Vedic period, most of the upper castes, which were either Brahmins or Kshatriyas had their education in a unique system called GURUKULAM. Students had their education by living with their preceptors in forests far removed from cities, towns or villages. The life of students who were called SHISYAS was very rigorous and demanding. Those who failed to live up to these high standards would simply fall by the wayside. There were legendary acharyas like Sanandeepani and Dronacharya who taught epic heroes like Krishna and Arjuna martial skills, but what makes the Vedic period unique is the existence of sages like Gautama and Jaimini who were founder of different schools of Indian philosophy like Nyaya and Purva Mimamsa. This was a period of intense intellectual activity and speculation, which we hardly find even now. While Nyaya and Vaisheshika were theistic philosophies, Sankhya was atheistic.

Monday, July 1, 2013


Educational Technology

The significance of Educational Technology (ET) as a
site for curriculum planning has been widely recognised,
but detailed guidelines and strategies for its educationally
optimum use have not yet been worked out. Generally,
technology has been used as a medium to disseminate
information, and as a way of addressing the scarcity
of good teachers—usuallythe consequence of poor
recruitment policies.ET, which is used toredress the problem
of quality of teaching, can only exacerbate the disillusionment
of teachers withteaching. If ET is to become a means of enhancing
curricular reform, it must treat the majority of teachers
and children not merely as consumers but also as active
producers. There must be widespread consultation
regarding use during development and implementation.
ET facilities need to be used at all levels of schools —
cluster and block resource centres, district, state and
national level institutions — in order to provide handson
experience in using ET. Such experiences provided
to children, teachers and teacher educators, could
include something as simple as the audio-recording of
an interview with a village elder, to making a video
film or a video game. Providing children more direct
access to multimedia equipment and Information

Sunday, June 30, 2013


Texts and Books

Popular perception treats the textbook as the prime
site for curriculum designing. Though curriculum
planning is a much wider process, curriculum reform
seldom goes beyond changing the textbook. Improved
textbooks that are carefully written and designed,
professionally edited and tested, offering not merely
factual information but also interactive spaces for
children are important. But curricular reform can go
much farther if textbooks are accompanied by several
other kinds of materials. Subject dictionaries, for
instance, can relieve the main textbook from becoming
encyclopaedic, burdened by carrying definitions of
technical terms, and instead allow the teacher to focus
on understanding concepts. The triangular relationship
between high-speed classroom teaching, heavy
homework and private tuition, which is a major source
of stress, can be weakened if textbook writers focus
on elaboration of concepts, activities, spaces for
wondering about problems, exercises encouraging
reflective thinking and small-group work, leaving the
definition of technical terms to a subject dictionary.

Saturday, June 29, 2013



It is widely acknowledged that health is influenced by
biological, social, economic, cultural and political forces.
Access to basic needs like food, safe drinking water
supply, housing, sanitation and health services influences
the health status of a population, and these are reflected
through mortality and nutritional indicator s. Health is a
critical input for the overall development of the child,
and it influences enrolment, retention and school
completion rates significantly. This curriculum area
adopts a holistic definition of health within which
physical education and yoga contribute to the physical,
social, emotional and mental development of a child.
Undernourishment and communicable diseases are
the major health problems faced by the majority of
children in India, from the pre-primary to the higher
secondary school stages. Therefore, the need to address
this aspect at all levels of schooling, with special attention
to vulnerable social groups and girl children. It is
proposed that the midday meal programme and medical
check-ups be made a part of the curriculum and
education about health be provided that address the agespecific
concerns at different stages of development.