Wednesday, May 16, 2012

FORMAL EDUCATION AND ALTERNATIVES FOR FORMAL EDUCATION



INTRODUCTION
The word education is derived from the Latin word Educatum which means the act of teaching or training. There is another word in Latin that is Educare which means to bring up or to raise. The word Educare means to lead forth or to come out. All these meanings indicate that education seeks to nourish the good qualities in man and draw out the best in man.Education helps to develop the inner capacities of man.
  By educating an individual we attempt to give him some desirable knowledge, understanding, skills, interests, attitude and critical thinking. That is he acquires knowledge of history, geography, arithmetic, languages and other sciences. By education people develops some understandings about the deeper things in life, complex human relations and cause and effect of relationships etc. The person gets some skillsinwriting, speaking, calculating, drawing, operating some equipments etc.
     Education is necessary for the survival of the society. It is a purposeful activity. The aims of education will vary from time to time and from people to people. Educational aims can be immediate and ultimate. Immediate aims are those which fulfill the immediate needs. The ultimate aim of education is the perfect happiness.
Education has been classified into three types,
1. Formal education
2. Informal education
3. Non-formal education    

Wednesday, May 9, 2012

ROLE OF TEACHERS IN THE GLOBAL SCENARIO



INTRODUCTION
According to UN, “education is a process which draws out the best in man with the aim of producing a well balanced personality”. Education has a very significant role in developing an individual to the level of perfection by drawing out the best citizen from him, best Indian from him etc. In the opinion of Dr .A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, the former president of India, “the whole purpose of education in a country is to develop and enhance the potential of human resource and progressively transform it into a knowledge society”. To fulfill this purpose of education, teacher has a very significant and non replaceable role.
The UNESCO international commission on education for twenty first century has identified four pillars of learning-learning to know, learning to do, learning to be, learning to live together. This can be achieved with the help of teachers. In the field of education, the one which influence the life of students is the teacher. There is a phrase ‘as is the teacher so is the child’. In this paper we are discussing on the expanded role of teachers in the field of education and the qualities essential for him to become effective.
WHO IS A TEACHER?
The word ‘teach’ is derived from the Anglo Saxon word ‘teacon’ which means “to impart”, “to instruct”, “to make aware of” and “to train”. A teacher can be defined as a person who has enough knowledge in any field and conveys this knowledge to the ignorant one.
In the narrow vision teacher is an inevitable part of the social system, called school, who deliver lecture to students. In the wide sense, a teacher can be defined as anything or anybody which influences another and make a change in his intellectual, moral or physical level. The personality, character, and attitudes of a good teacher can influence and inspire the young people. In molding the future of a child, the teacher has remarkable role. People ranging from layman to philosopher praise the teacher as a mason who builds the fabric of society, the students being the bricks and mortar of the future.
NEED AND SIGNIFICANCE OF TEACHERS IN THE EDUCATION      SYSTEM
Education is a lifelong process and without the help of a teacher it will be incomplete. According to the national policy on education (1986), “no society can raise above the standard above of its teachers”. Stressing on the need for quality teachers’ the American president Obama commented as, “the single most important factor in determining a student’s achievement isn’t the color of his skin or where he comes from, but who the child’s teacher is”. Development of human resource is the work of a teacher. Education has to develop the spirit of service, social sensitiveness, moral character and cooperation in the student. This is possible only with the help of teachers. To create a positive approach and attitude in an individual teacher is a must. Every people need education for their career growth. A classroom comprises of many students with different potentials and possibilities. The teacher provides knowledge to all these students and in this way he prepares future teacher, lawyer, doctor, politicians etc. Thus teaching is the mother profession of all other professions. Some of the great teachers were the cause of revolution in political and industrial level. In the words of Henry Adams “a teacher affects eternity; he can never tell where his influence stops”.
ROLE OF TEACHERS IN THE ANCIENT PERIOD
In the ancient period, teacher had the following major roles:-
A) GURU:
‘GU’ means darkness and ‘RU’ means to ‘remove’. The person who lead the younger generation from darkness to light is termed as ‘guru’. He is also termed as ‘torch bearer’. Like the light of a torch expels the darkness; the teacher with the help of his knowledge removes the darkness of ignorance. An ancient ideal of guru was teacher centric. Teacher was the store house of wisdom. He transmitted all his knowledge and the pupil stored it into his memory. Teacher had absolute authority. He was considered as the perfect specimen of mankind. He had the weight of intellectual, spiritual and moral worth. He was eminent in knowledge, possessed a holy character, free from the evil practices and greed for wealth and had self control. He was considered as the knowledge bank and spiritual leader.
B) ADVISOR:
Teachers in ancient period were held in high position by the society. Even the kings and rulers paid respect to them. The kings and rulers were often approached their teachers for guidance and advice, since they were the true benefactors of society and trustees of common welfare. There are many examples in history for the decision taken by the rulers according to the advice of teachers. Alexander, the great, praises his teacher Aristotle for the knowledge and advice given to him in time. He says “my parents give me birth; but my teacher gives me life”.
C) SYMBOL/MODEL:
In the ancient period teacher was considered as a symbol also; a symbol of truth, beauty and purity .ancient India revered teachers as the ‘Param Brahma’. He is the creator-creator of ideas and ideals; he is the preserver-preserver of truth and justice; he is the destroyer-destroys both intention and deeds of evil. The ancient India gives very high place to the teachers. India gave the great glory to the teaching profession because of the voluntary poverty, selfless service, high scholarship and pure moral and spiritual conduct of the teachers. At that time religious and spiritual factors were predominant in the choice of teaching careers. But in the modern age, it is almost deteriorated to merely getting a job.
TEACHER CENTERED APPROACH TO LEARNER CENTERED APPROACH IN THE EDUCATIONSYSTEM
In the previous system of education, teacher was the principal role. But in the new approach the learner occupies the centre of the education system. The needs, interests, level, age and potentials of the child are taken into account. Now the process of education is not the process of inputting something to the head, but drawing out from the child. Teachers assess the nature of the students, watch their natural interests, encourage potential in them and inspire them to bring out the best in them. Contents and evaluation systems are upgraded and developed. The modern teacher depends on encouragement, suggestion and sympathetic ways. The modern teacher encourages questions by learners.
The main characteristics of constructivism are:
(A) All knowledge is human construction
(B) Learning is an internal process and that occurs in the mind of an individual
(C) Experience or interaction is required to create knowledge
(D) Follows the principle off collaborative and cooperative learning strategies.
Thus in the new approach, the traditional role of teachers as providing knowledge to the student is totally changed.
ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF TEACHERS IN THE NEW APPROACH
The learner centered approach doesn’t reduce the importance of teachers. In the new approach the role of the teacher become more complex. They have to create new insights, competencies and outlooks. In the modern system, the teacher has to implement the following factors in his mode of teaching.
A) Encourage - pair work, group work activity, group discussion, assignment, project work etc
B) Encourage the use of library, self study and mass media
C) Encourage learner’s participation, welcome questions
D) Develop self development, resource material for self learning
E) Maintain- a portfolio-all the necessary things like charts, audiovisuals etc
F) Let the students think and arrive at the solutions
G) Play the role of a facilitator
The participation of students to construct the knowledge has to be maximized. The teacher has to take maximum efforts to bring out the best in him. He has to plan, organize and control the effects of all the available resources involved in the teaching learning process. In a learner centered situation the constructivist teacher is not the source of information but one of the resources. Since the pupils are searching for new and new ideas, the best quality of constructivist teacher is to have an instantaneous vision of the pupils mind.
ROLE OF TEACHERS IN THE TWENTY FIRST CENTURY
 The new century is an era of globalization, knowledge explosion, technological innovations and enormous scientific growth. The field of education is undergoing changes miraculously. Changes like virtual classrooms, global communications, distance learning, global economies, telecourses, corporate classrooms, increased competition among social agencies for scarce resources etc. comes. In this situation, in addition to the role of teachers as knowledge provider, he has to perform a number of roles .These roles can be summarized as follows.
1. TEACHER - ROLE MODEL  
This is the most important role of teacher. A role model is a person whose behavior is imitated by others. According to Anton A. Bucher, models are one of the most important pedagogical agents in the history of education. He suggests Jesus as the perfect role model from the ancient, through the middle and till modern times. To support his theory, he conducted a survey among one hundred and thirty students of Austria and Germany. The questionnaire contained two open ended questions “what persons are your role models and why?”He included a list of forty persons from different fields .the rating scale varied from “no model whatever” to “a very important role model for me”. Results obtained as personalities of social nearness to the participants had the greatest model effect on them. Parents and relatives were mentioned with great frequency; after that religious models and then only sports and movie stars. Educators can be considered to have near to the same social status of social nearness to the children. Then children will fully consider them as role models. There is a thirst of youth for positive role models. The seven characteristics of a positive role model are the following.
A. POSITIVE CHOICE MAKING:
On making choices we have to remember that the choice not only impacts us but also the children who regard us as super hero. When they are in the same situation in future they will think what we do in such a situation. So as role models we have to take good choices.
B. THINK OUT LOUDLY:
A good role model will show the way they have reach at that decision. When we have to make a tough choice, show before students the weight of pros and cons etc. when they face such a situation in their life they will follow the same role.
C. APOLOGISE AND ADMIT MISTAKES:
Mistakes are part of human life. If the teacher made a mistake and admit and correct a mistake then it will be a great eye opener to the student. This will help him to accept his mistakes in his future.
D. FOLLOW THROUGH:
To be a good role model, we have to be self disciplined. That means
(a) We have to be punctual
(b) Finish what you have started
(c) Don’t quit
(d) Keep promises
(e) Don’t back off things when things get challenging.
E. SHOWS RESPECT:
There is a saying in the gospel, “do for others what you want them to do for you” (Mt7:12). Mutual respect and good speaking about others are key techniques to keep relations smooth and fruitful.
F. BE WELL ROUNDED:
Great role models are people with varied interests and talents. They are in the process of continuous learning. He is a teacher at the same time father, good sportsman etc. A lady teacher will play at the same time a role of teacher, mother, singer etc. When students see this they will also think in this way.
G. DEMONSTRATE CONFIDENCE IN WHAT YOU ARE:
Be proud of what you are. What we want to do with our life is a gift to our creator and fellow beings. Even though we have to take a very long trip to our destination we have to commemorate the lessons we have learned and reach the goal.
TEACHING CHARACTER AND MORAL VALUE
1. HONESTY
If we want our children to develop honesty, the teacher must be very honest in all his behavior to the students. An ideal teacher has to avoid partiality in dealings and have to be honest and transparent in all their dealings with the children. Honesty is a prerequisite to trust, fairness, respect, responsibility etc.
2. TRUST
Trust is the belief in others that develops whenever people fulfill their promises and commitments. Trust replaces fear with confidence and open-mindedness. When students trust their teachers a fear of failure is transformed into an opportunity to learn. Trust is developed when the teacher plays the role of a facilitator. If trust is developed students will come to their teachers for help in their needs, struggles, crisis etc.
3. FAIRNESS
Fairness requires that all students have the same opportunity to meet the standards on a written or skill test and receive an appropriate grade. Teachers have practice and emphasize self control. Teachers who are fair believe in students’ individuality and encourage them to reach the goal. The highest and lowest students have to be marked equally.
4. RESPECT
It is important to have a respectful community in the classroom. To develop this, teachers can play a vital role by showing respect to each one irrespective of caste, creed, and color etc. Teachers those who treat the students with respect will be respected by the students also.
5. RESPONSIBILITY
They have to be accountable to their students, to society, to institution and parents. As part of responsibility, they have to create a positive learning environment and educational services to society, by helping the students to develop their cognitive, psychomotor, affective domains. The well prepared and planned classroom teaching is also a part of their responsibility.
Teachers help the students to internalize moral virtues of honesty, fairness, respect, responsibility through their life. Teachers need to boost the students to stand firm in virtues and values however high the pressure from surroundings against it. Moral reasoning is a process of evaluating personal values and developing an impartial set of moral principles by which we have to live. Stoll and Beller emphasized (1998) “moral reasoning doesn’t promise behavioral changes, but it does promise individual soul searching and reflection on personal beliefs, values and principles. Without this process cognitive growth will not increase, behavior change will never occur”.
I think a teacher will be role model if he/she has:
A) QUALITY OF LIFE:
Quality means good character, unity in words and deeds etc. Teachers have to keep this quality in his life and profession. Such a teacher is a role model to the students and they will apply it into their life.
B) RESPONSIBILITY, COMMITMENT and DEDICATION:
“A good teacher is like a candle-it consumes itself to light the way of others.”(Mustafa Kenal Ataturk).Only if the teacher has the awareness that teaching is his sacred duty he can possess responsibility and commitment to it. He has to possess dedication and commitment to his work, to students, institution, society etc. He should be ready to spend some extra time for students or institution, if needed.
C) VALUE BASED LIFE:
Values are guiding principles of life accepted by the majority for a better life in the concept of general view. More than likes and dislikes values should guide life. He has to proclaim and transform it and should have the courage to stand for it before anybody. He should have the strength to swim against the flow.
D) A FRIEND OR GUIDE RATHER THAN A COMMANDER:
Students like teachers who behave with them like friends. He has to share and work with the students. Research studies prove that the morale of children, their production and achievement is higher in a climate of democratic approach by teachers.
E) INTEGRATED PERSONALITY:
By the term integrated personality I mean the spiritual, intellectual, psychological and physical caliber the teacher should have.ie quality is more important than quantity. To satisfy the curious mind of the students’ teacher should have intellectual caliber by continuous learning. For effective stress management and to guide the students through proper way he should have the psychological caliber. Teacher is a guru. In this world of competitions and single centered life, teachers can help the students to see the goodness in ourselves and surroundings and to guide them to the divine element. For this he need spiritual caliber. Without a good physical condition there is no effective communication or teaching. So he should have the physical caliber.
According to Dr. A .P.J. Abdul Kalam, “any enlighten human being can be created by three unique characteristics. One is moral value system and that is got from my father; Secondly the teacher becoming the role model. The teacher shaped his life with dreams and aims; finally the education and learning process has to culminate in the creation of professional capability leading to confidence and willpower to make a design, to make a product, bravely combating many problems. What a fortune and blessing I had from my teachers”.
2. TEACHER AS A GUIDE
A guide is one who directs another in his course of life. In the early years of child the teacher has to function as guide. He has to walk with the students and to deliver the answers to his students. He has to show them the goals they have to achieve and the way to attain it and lead him to the goal by going along with him. A teacher who is a real guide to his students will feel with them, suffer with them and struggle with them till he achieves the goal.
3. TEACHER AS A FRIEND
In the early childhood of one the role of teacher is to function as a friend to the student. Swami Vivekananda says, “The true teacher is one who can immediately come down to the level of the student and transfer his soul to the student and see through and understand through his mind”. The relationship of a student to teacher involves trust, guidance, encouragement etc. Teachers need to make a good rapport with the students. Teachers have to create freedom with the students in such a way to create a situation for sharing with them like friends.
4. TEACHER AS A MENTOR
In the early teenage of a child teacher can take the role of a mentor. He can help the individual to bring out his hidden talents and interests which has a great influence on his future. It is best to celebrate the identified strength of the child in the public. In this period teacher can encourage their acceptable behavior and correct the non accepted ones. Teacher can provide him values like punctuality, morality and perseverance.
5. TEACHER –SUBSTITUENT PARENT
Sometimes the role of teacher is like substituent parents. The little kids look to anyone as his parent who has love, affection and care to him and who is ready to help him. The teacher has to compensate the lack of father or mother in case of students those who haven’t them. School is the second home and teacher is the second parent to him.
6. TEACHER AS A FACILITATOR 
In the new approach of education, teachers have to function as a facilitator of learning. The teacher has to motivate the students and encourage discussing and debating. The teacher has to interact with them but the interaction has to follow the children as a whole. Techniques and methods like laboratory work, field trips, discussions, seminars etc should be developed among students with the purpose of producing good interaction among them. As a facilitator of learning teacher has to maintain control in the classroom and has to create a positive environment in classroom. Teacher should enable the students to maximize the potential of their formal and informal learning. He had to make him familiar with the great diversity of space, resources, technology etc.
7. SOCIAL ENGINEER
An engineer is one who prepare plan, design a blue print of a task to be completed. The teachers prepare the blueprint of the social development. As a member of the society he has to work for the development of the society. He is the social engineer who makes use of the human materials of the nation to construct a stable structure. The culture, values and traditions of the country is transmitted to the pupil through the teacher. Inside the school teacher prepare children as better citizens with intellectual development. Outside the classroom, he can live as a social worker. Since he is a teacher he is expected to be above average member of the society. He should have a strong desire and readiness to work for fulfilling the needs of the community.
8.  TEACHER-LEADER
The person who has own knowledge and practice the ideas where needed can be termed as leader. He has to monitor the system, plan, organize and lead the activities to a sustainable development. There is a CID model of teacher leader. Teacher leadership can be defined as the process in which teacher connect the goal of an individual with the ultimate goal of education. The teacher leadership model-CID model - connects, influence, develop-can be applied at various levels:
(A) connect-it involves four things - (a) connect to ones’ personal goals and vision (b) connect to the goal and vision of institution (c) connect to the purpose of education (d) connect to the students
(B) influence-(a) principals-for applying new teaching methodologies, better assessment procedures, in service training programme etc. (b) colleagues-to set up peer learning forums, peer assessment of students performance reach out to global educational practices, involve in individual and small research projects etc(c) students-motivate rather than advice, encourage students to teach appropriate lessons, actively listen to their learning needs and suggestions etc.
(C) Develop- psychological, intellectual and social development involve in it.
The teacher leader should give importance on building teams. The importance of working with each other and the ability to share the credit, team building should be conveyed to the students.
9. CLASSROOM TEACHER
The responsibility of a teacher in the classroom is very significant. There is a saying like this; “an ordinary teacher tells; a good teacher demonstrates; the best teacher inspires”. The role of a teacher in the classroom include the roles as inspirer, facilitator, guide which we already discussed. The additional roles are:
A) CREATOR AND PROVIDER OF KNOWLEDGE:
The three essential things for classroom teaching are (a) know how-subject knowledge (b) do how-teaching skill(c) transfer how-communication skill. Education involves not only the providing of information but also the creation of knowledge. Everyone has the ability to build their own knowledge. The teacher has the responsibility to develop this skill of creating knowledge.
B) AS A CLASSROOM MANAGER:
According to BROPHY (1988) “good classroom management not only implies the avoidance of misconduct but also those worthwhile academic activities are occurring continuously and maximizes students’ engagements in these activities.” Thus as a classroom manager teacher has to conduct academic activities with active participation of students.
C) INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGNER:
Teacher design, plan and organize classrooms. They are very clear about the goal they want to fulfill through the teaching and they plan and teach according to this. The instruction designer take into account all of the resources available to meet the variety of needs his students have and implements well designed activities to address their needs”(kozma,1994).
D) MEDIATOR OF CULTURE:
If the teacher is an effective mediator of culture he will (a) define his objectives with including values important in culture (b) utilize his specialization area to develop problem solving effectiveness(c) design his activities to develop ability and motivation to solve social problems (d) develop attitudes and abilities required for effective participation (e) he will enrich the cultural growth of his pupils
10. ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATOR
According to a Chinese proverb, “if you are thinking one year ahead, plant rise; if you are thinking ten year ahead, plant trees; and if you are thinking hundred years ahead, educate the people”. The modern era is in a threat of the degradation of environmental quality. The level of air pollution, water pollution etc. increased and disturbs the ecological balance. In this context we have to create environmental awareness to protect, preserve and conserve our environment. This is possible with the help of a teacher as environment protector.
v    Traditionally teacher has been called as ‘protector of the environment’, “savior of the environment”, “purifier of the environment” etc.
v    Teacher should provide the lessons related to the fundamental duties related to the environment
v    Not only impart knowledge about environment but also change the behavior of the students so that reducing pollution and adopting good habits.
v    Keep the school and community neat and green.
v    Encourage tree plantation
v    Celebration of important days related to environment
11. VALUE EDUCATOR
There is a comment, “education without vision is waste; education without value is crime and education without mission is life burden”. Role of teachers in value education can be summarized as follows: Teacher should (a) develop a nationalistic feeling among students (b) create an awareness about the modern problems related to food, water, energy, environment etc. (d) eradicate illiteracy (e) ensure social equality and justice (f) develop the qualities of character and strong leadership (g) organize field activities among the marginalized with the students.
12. ROLE IN INCLUSION OF PUPILS WITH LEARNING DIFFERENCES
Inclusion of pupils with learning differences is a stepping stone to achieve the goal, ‘universal education’. It involves changes and modifications in the content, approaches, structures and strategies. Inclusion assumes that all children are part of the regular school system. It demands high level of teaching competence and organizational changes. The background of inclusion is as follows: people have a negative outlook to such children. So most of them kept at home itself and parents do not get any kind of support from the community to raise them. The key element in inclusion is teaching and the role of teachers in inclusive setup. Inclusion will become realized only if teachers are aware of the nature of the situation and ready to commit for it.
13. ROLE OF TEACHER IN CURRICULAM INSTRUCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION
The curriculum can be termed as ‘a tool in the hands of an artist to mould his materials according to his idols in his studio” (Cundhiam). In 1950 the term curriculum came into usage which includes not only the syllabus materials but also teaching materials and plan of instruction. Central educational authorities develop the national curriculum frame work and are adapted at the state level by taking into account the local needs and social context.
REAL CURRICULUM:
Official curriculum + learning from media and other social interactions +teacher-pupil interaction                  learner development
Curriculum development is a continuous process. Teacher is the most important factor in the construction of curriculum. The teacher –student interactions in the classroom and the method of teaching etc influences the outcomes of learning. By selecting appropriate materials and pedagogies and by the teaching of issues of equality and rights in the society teacher can give opportunity to develop their potential. During the construction of curricular activities teachers have to take into account various factors such as availability of resources, media and technology, social, cultural and ethnic values, etc which influences the curriculum.
The teacher can influence the curricula in developing values among students. The values transmitted through these interactions become the real curricular values. The learning outcome depends not only on the content but also the method of teaching. Media and technology affect the curriculum to a great extent. Electronic media such as TV, computer, internet, communication facilities etc enrich students’ real curriculum. A good library and effective study materials make the learning more effective.
14. DESTINY MAKER  -                NATION BUILDING
According to the Kothari commission report (1964-1966) “the destiny of India is being shaped in her classrooms”. Teacher is a maker of man. He is the foundation of all education and thus of the whole civilization of mankind. “No nation reconstruction is possible without the active cooperation of the teacher” (John Adams). Teacher can be called as ‘nation builder’ since the future of the nation is built through education. The teacher influences the minds of the youth and helps them to be proud of their culture, national character and national emblem and ornament themselves with societal conducts. Thus teacher has to play a vital role as   nation builder.
The great teachers reveal the values of their life and empathy to the fellow beings .They create social cohesion, national integration and a learning society. The quality of a teacher determines the quality of a citizen which in turn determines the quality of a nation. Teachers build the nation through the process of classroom teaching .He has to train students in virtues and values that will strengthen the democracy. To strengthen our democracy teacher should infuse to the mind of the students’ tolerance, unity and feeling of motherhood, civic responsibility, faith in democracy etc.
As our constitution proclaims, “teacher have to educate them on the need to recognize the equality of men and women in democracy, to discard all outcaste exclusiveness and pride, untouchability and communal distinctions and antagonisms and to strengthen the dignity of the individual and the unity of the nation” .The students must be educated to integrate the nation out of our diversities. They should get familiarity with constitution. Pure national awareness, a firm democratic loyalty, dedicated social responsibility should be developed in the student. Education should give the capacity to discriminate between the good and bad and the courage to reject bad and the negative.
15. ROLE IN DISTANCE EDUCATION
According to some research findings, the roles of a teacher in distance education are
(a) Assume responsibility for the preparation and presentation of learning tasks
(b) Keep students on task and consult with them to correct problems
(c) To be aware of needs and wishes of students
(d) Build student motivation
(e) Establish an effective environment for student-teacher and student-student interaction
Teacher Role in Distance Education Based on Constructivity Approach:
a) Teacher encourages learner autonomy and is aware of individual differences
b) Teacher constantly reaches the curriculum and provides up-to-date examples
c) Teacher gives importance to the thoughts of students and encourage student research, discussions etc.
d) When designing course materials teacher take into consideration the individual differences
e) Teacher initiates student –teacher interactions, communication and technological skills to effectively implement distance education
f) Students are responsible for learning and contacting when needed
g) Teacher provides environment, materials and guidance for collaborative learning, discussion groups, individual learning and research
h) Teacher provide feedback to students to facilitate learning
16. ONLINE INSTRUCTOR
In the modern era teachers have to take the role as online Instructor. He has to take responsibility of keeping discussions on track, share special knowledge and insights, maintain group harmony, weaving together  various discussion threads, suggesting a human relationship, developing group unity, helping members to work together in a mutual cause are all critical to success of any online activities.
CAN TECHNOLOGY REPLACE TEACHERS?
Once Nehru asked, “can we combine the progress of science and technology with the progress of mind and spirit also”? Now technology is widely used in classroom. In this period of knowledge explosion do we need teachers today is a confronting question. Knowledge received without the guidance of a teacher can be compared to a blind man walking without a stick. “Good teachers teach; great teachers inspire”. Technology can’t replace inspiring teachers. Students can find out answers to many questions from books or websites, but only through the close contact between teacher and students his basic ego needs are satisfied. In a stage of falling moral standard and values, teacher can develop a generation with quality of life, words and deeds.
No machine can replace teachers. Even in the period of de -schooling and e-learning teacher is a must. Knowledge can be acquired from anywhere; but education without teacher is like body without soul. Bill gates comments about the pivotal role of teachers as “technology is just a tool; in terms of getting the kids together and motivating them, teacher is the most important”. Machine can’t identify the learner’s needs, level of mind and his situation. It is the teacher who identifies and recognizes the child with his potentials and talents, abilities and disabilities, merits and demerits, capacities and challenges and leads him to the goal. For example consider the character of “Nikumbh Sir” from “Tarre Zameen Par” who identified the potential in “Ishaan”. Here the teacher identifies him where no one else could, including his parents.
ESSENTIAL QUALITIES FOR TEACHERS
A) QUALITY OF CHARACTER
The word TEACHER stands for-
T- Tolerance/ Talent/ Truthfulness
E- Efficiency/Empathy
A-Attitude/Affection
C-Care/Character/Commitment
H-Honesty/Humble Nature
E-Enthusiasm/Encouragement
R-Responsibility/Research Orientation
B) QUALITY OF LIFE:
 There should be a harmony between the thoughts, words and deeds of a teacher. Then the students will also apply it in their life.
C) PERSONAL VALUES:
Love, brotherhood, dutifulness, patience, sharing, service, responsibility, accountability, sympathy, justice, loyalty, gratitude, freedom etc are the personal values needed for a teacher.
D) SOCIALVALUES:
Punctuality, respect, faithfulness, dedication, honesty, obedience, cleanliness, self evaluation, regularity, sincerity, good manners, discipline, etc Teachers should have good mental health. A neurotic teacher may create fear, nervousness and worry in the classroom.
E) SUBJECT KNOWLEDGE:
One of the important qualities of an educator is to have deep, thorough and up-to-date knowledge in his subject. Tagore said “only a lighted lamp can light another lamp”. Only a teacher who is continuously learning and understanding the new concepts, changes and developments in the subject can influence the children and satisfy their curiosity.
F) QUALITY OF COMPASSION:
Teacher should have an attitude of love and sympathy to the children. Students should feel that teacher is fully interested in his growth and has love and affection to him.
G) ATTITUDE OF IMPARTIALITY AND OBJECTIVITY:
A good teacher should adopt the attitude of impartiality and objectivity. Equality doesn’t mean to treat all alike at all time but it does mean to treat all alike at equal situations .i.e. equality at equal situations. His interest in children should be impersonal, not to be misguided or influenced by any other factors.
H) BE A STUDENT OF STUDENTS:
In a talk to Ghadi Vidyalays students at Sevagram Gandhi spoke like this. “A teacher who establishes good rapport with the taught, becomes one with them, learns more from them than he teaches them. He, who learns nothing from his disciples, is worthless in my opinion. A true teacher regards himself as a student if students.”
I) GOOD PERSONALITY: 
A teacher should have good personality which influences the children very much. His physical appearance also has an impact on them. The teacher should be neat and modest in his dress, pleasing and impressive personal appearance, keeping good manners in words and dealings, open-mindedness and enthusiasm, steady and mature behavior etc are desirable traits to teachers.
Actually no teachers have all these qualities together. All are on the way to reach at this level.

CONCLUSION
In this modern era teaching is a complex process and the role of teacher is also complex, multidimensional and challenging. They have to play roles ranging from simple classroom teachers to role model. It is not a simple task; but a time consuming process and need constant concentration of mind. To play these roles effectively teacher has to face great challenges and needed to use technological applications, improved ways of teaching and more than that, he or she should be a continuous learner. They should have good mind and attention to gain all the qualities needed for an efficient teacher. In the age of knowledge explosion also teacher is a must for student’s wellbeing.
“Many of the biggest advances in civilization have been the chief work, not of politicians or investigators, not even of artists, but of teachers”.
Thus the role of teacher in education is everlasting and evergreen.